Yes and no.
Yes, math is a universal language because, as Cady said in Mean Girls, it's the same in every country. One plus one will ALWAYS make two.
Music is not really a universal language. There are different ways to write it and not everyone can read it. Not everyone can play an instrument either, since many lack the patience. Wherever you go, everyone will understand that if you have one thing and another of that thing you have two things.
Besides, music developed from math What with timing etc
No, because you're still speaking English or Bantu or Romany or Piraha. Someone who doesn't speak your language expressed numerically cannot decipher your meaning.
Math isn't a language, folks. Neither is music.
Every creature knows than one thing and another of that thing is two things. Math started when beings became aware of one another.
Not to mention, math is necessary for music to keep in time.
It is more than likely that man's ancestors knew about music--based on cave paintings--but they did not have the cognitive ability to count any more than a squirrel can count.