Basic Assembly Tutorial by DABhand
Ok whats opcodes? An opcode is an instruction the processor can understand. For example
SUB and ADD and DIV
The sub instructions subtracts two numbers together. Most opcodes have operands
SUB destination,source like the following
SUB eax, ecx
SUB has 2 operands. In the case of a subtraction, a source and a destination. It subtracts the source value to the destination value and then stores the result in the destination. Operands can be of different types: registers, memory locations, immediate values.
So basically that instruction is this, say for example eax contained 20 and ecx contained 10
eax = eax - ecx
Easy that bit huh
Ahhh here is the main force of asm, Registers contain values and information which is used in a program to keep track of things, and when new to ASM it does look messy but the system is practically efficient. It is honestly
Lets take a look at the main Register used, its eax. Say it contains the value FFEEDDCCh (the h means hexidecimal) when working later with softice u will see hex values alot so get used to it now
Ok Ill show how the registers are constructed
ax, ah, al are part of eax. EAX is a 32-bit register
(available only on 386+), ax contains the lower
16 bits (2 bytes)
eax = FFEEDDCC (32-bit)
Understand? I know its alot to take in, but thats how registers work Heres some more examples of opcodes and the registers used...
So at start..
eax = 002130DF
eax = 00213026
Did you follow what happened? I hope so, cause im trying to make this as easy as I can
Ok lets discuss the types of registers, there is 4 types used mainly (there is others but will tell about them later)
These 32-bit (and their 16bit and 8bit sub registers) registers can be used for anything, but their main purpose is shown after them.
As said these are hardly used nowadays for their main purpose and is used to ferry arround information within programs and games (such as scores, health value etc)
Segment registers define the segment of memory that is used. You'll probably won't need them with win32asm, because windows has a flat memory system. In dos, memory is divided into segments of 64kb, so if you want to define a memory address, you specify a segment, and an offset (like 0172:0500 (segment:offset)). In windows, segments have sizes of 4gig, so you won't need segments in win. Segments are always 16-bit registers.
CS code segment
Actually, you can use pointer registers as general purpose registers (except for eip), as long as you preserve their original values. Pointer registers are called pointer registers because their often used for storing memory addresses. Some opcodes (and also movb,scasb,etc.) use them.
esi (si) Source index
EIP (or IP in 16-bit programs) contains a pointer to the instruction the processor is about to execute. So you can't use eip as general purpose registers.
There are 2 stack registers: esp & ebp. ESP holds the current stack position in memory (more about this in one of the next tutorials). EBP is used in functions as pointer to the local variables.
esp (sp) Stack pointer
How is the memory used within ASM and the layout of it? Well hopefully this will answer some questions. Bear in mind there is more advanced things than what is explained here, but hell you lot arent advanced, so start from the basics
Lets look at the different types..
In 16-bit programs like for DOS (and Win 3.1), memory was divided in segments. These segments have sizes of 64kb. To access memory, a segment pointer and an offset pointer are needed. The segment pointer indicates which segment (section of 64kb) to use, the offset pointer indicates the place in the segment itself.
Take a look at this
Hope that shows well
Note that the following explanation is for 16-bit programs, more on 32-bit later (but don't skip this part, it is important to understand 32-bits).
The table above is the total memory, divided in segments of 64kb. There's a maximum of 65536 segments. Now take one of the segments:
0145:42A2 (all hex numbers remember )
This means: segment 145, offset 42A2. To see what is at that address, you first go to segment 145, and then to offset 42A2 in that segment.
Hopefully you remembered to read about those Segment Registers a while ago on this thread.
CS - Code segment
The names explain their function: code segment (CS) contains the number of the section where the current code that is being executed is. Data segment for the current segment to get data from. Stack indicates the stack segment (more on the stacks later), ES, FS, GS are general purpose registers and can be used for any segment (not in win32 though).
Pointer registers most of the time hold an offset, but general purpose registers (ax, bx, cx, dx etc.) can also be used for this. IP (Pointer register) indicates the offset (in the CS (code segment)) of the instruction that is currently executed. SP (Stack register) holds the offset (in the SS (stack segment)) of the current stack position.
Phew and you thought 16bit memory was hard huh
Sorry if thats all confusing, but its the easiest way to explain it. Reread it a few times it will eventually sink into your brain on how memory works and how it is accessed to be read and written too
Now we move to
You have probably noticed that all this about segments really isn't fun. In 16-bit programming, segments are essential. Fortunately, this problem is solved in 32-bit Windows (9x and NT).
You still have segments, but don't care about them because they aren't 64kb, but 4 GIG. Windows will probably even crash if you try to change one of the segment registers.
This is called the flat memory model. There are only offsets, and they now are 32-bit, so in a range from 0 to 4,294,967,295. Every location in memory is indicated only by an offset.
This is really one of the best advantages of 32-bit over 16-bit. So you can forget the segment registers now and focus on the other registers.
Oh the madness of it all, wow 4 gig bits to work with
The Fun Part begins!!!
Here is a list of a few opcodes you will notice alot of when making trainers or cracking etc.
This instruction is used to move (or actually copy) a value from one place to another. This 'place' can be a register, a memory location or an immediate value (only as source value of course). The syntax of the mov instruction is:
mov destination, source
You can move a value from one register to another (note that the instruction copies the value, in spite of its name 'move', to the destination).
mov edx, ecx
The instruction above copies the contents of ecx to edx. The size of source and destination should be the same, this instruction for example is NOT valid:
mov al, ecx ; NOT VALID
This opcode tries to put a DWORD (32-bit) value into a byte (8-bit). This can't be done by the mov instruction (there are other instructions to do this). But these instructions are allowed because source and destination don't differ in size, like for example...
mov al, bl
Memory locations are indicated with an offset (in win32, for more info see the previous page). You can also get a value from a certain memory location and put it in a register. Take the following table as example:
(each block represents a byte)
The offset value is indicated as a byte here, but it is a 32-bit value. Take for example 3A (which isn't a common value for an offset, but otherwise the table won't fit...), this also is a 32-bit value: 0000003Ah. Just to save space, some unusual and low offsets are used. All values are hexcodes.
Look at offset 3A in the table above. The data at that offset is 25, 7A, 5E, 72, EF, etc. To put the value at offset 3A in, for example, a register you use the mov instruction, too:
mov eax, dword ptr [0000003Ah] ... but.......
You will see this more commonly in programs as
mov eax, dword ptr [ecx+45h]
This means ecx+45 will point to the memory location to take the 32 bit data from, we know its 32bit because of the dword in the instruction. To take say 16bit of data we use WORD PTR or 8bit BYTE PTR, like the following examples..
mov cl, byte ptr [34h] cl will get the value 0Dh (see table above) mov dx, word ptr [3Eh] dx will get the value 7DEFh (see table above, remember that the bytes are reversed)
The size sometimes isn't necessary:
mov eax, [00403045h]
because eax is a 32-bit register, the assembler assumes (and this is the only way to do it, too) it should take a 32-bit value from memory location 403045.
Immediate numbers are also allowed:
mov edx, 5006
This will just make the register edx contain the value 5006. The brackets, [ and ], are used to get a value from the memory location between the brackets, without brackets it is just a value. A register as memory location is allowed to (it should be a 32-bit register in 32-bit programs):
mov eax, 403045h ; make eax have the value 403045
In mov cx, [eax], the processor first looks what value (=memory location) eax holds, then what value is at that location in memory, and put this word (16 bits because the destination, cx, is a 16-bit register) into CX.
These are easy to understand Good old maths, im sure everyone can add and subtract and multiply and divide
Anyways on with the info
The add-opcode has the following syntax:
add destination, source
The calculation performed is destination = destination + source. The following forms are allowed:
This instruction is very simple. It just takes the source value, adds the destination value to it and then puts the result in the destination. Other mathematical instructions are:
SUB destination, source (destination = destination
Its easy peasy aint it...Or is it
Substraction works the same as add, multiplication is just dest = dest * source. Division is a little different Because registers are integer values (i.e. round numbers, not floating point numbers) , the result of a division is split in a quotient and a remainder. For example:
28 / 6 --> quotient = 4, remainder = 4
Now, depending on the size of the source, the quotient is stored in (a part of) eax, the remainder in (a part of) edx:
* = For example: if dx = 2030h, and ax = 0040h, dx: ax = 20300040h. dx:ax is a dword value where dx represents the higher word and ax the lower. Edx:eax is a quadword value (64-bits) where the higher dword is edx and the lower eax.
The source of the div-opcode can be:
an 8-bit register (al, ah, cl,...)
The source can not be an immediate value because then the processor cannot determine the size of the source operand.
3. BITWISE OPS
These instructions all take a destination and a source, exept the 'NOT' instruction. Each bit in the destination is compared to the same bit in the source, and depending on the instruction, a 0 or a 1 is placed in the destination bit:
AND sets the output bit to 1 if both the source
and destination bit is 1.
mov ax, 3406
ax = 3406 (decimal), which is 0000110101001110
The new dx is 0001111010100100 (7845 decimal, 1EA5 in hex) after the instruction.
mov ecx, FFFF0000h
FFFF0000 is in binary 11111111111111110000000000000000 (16 1's, 16 0's)
If you take the inverse of every bit, you get:
So ecx is after the NOT operation 0000FFFFh.
The last one is handy for serial generating, as is XOR. Infact XOR is used more for serials than any other instruction, widely used for serial checking in Winzip, Winrar, EA Games, Vivendi Universalis
I WONT TELL YOU HOW TO MAKE KEYGENS SO DONT ASK :)
There are 2 very simple instructions, DEC and INC. These instructions increase or decrease a memory location or register with one. Simply put:
inc reg -> reg = reg + 1
Ahh easy one to understand So is the next one
This instruction does absolutely nothing. This instruction just occupies space and time. It is used for filling purposes and patching codes.
Note: Most of the examples below use 8-bit numbers, but this is just to make the picture clear.
SHL destination, count
SHL and SHR shift a count number of bits in a register/memlocation left or right.
; al = 01011011 (binary) here
This means: shift all the bits of the al register 3 places to the right. So al will become 00001011. The bits on the left are filled up with zeroes and the bits on the right are shifted out. The last bit that is shifted out is saved in the carry-flag. The carry-bit is a bit in the processor's Flags register. This is not a register like eax or ecx that you can directly access (although there are opcodes to do this), but it's contents depend on the result of the instruction. This will be explained later, the only thing you'll have to remember now is that the carry is a bit in the flag register and that it can be on or off. This bit equals the last bit shifted out.
shl is the same as shr, but shifts to the left.
; bl = 11100101 (binary) here
bl is 10010100 (binary) after the instruction. The last two bits are filled up with zeroes, the carry bit is 1, because the bit that was last shifted out is a 1.
Then there are two other opcodes:
SAL destination, count (Shift Arithmetic Left)
SAL is the same as SHL, but SAR is not quite the same as SHR. SAR does not shift in zeroes but copies the MSB (most significant bit - The first bit if 1 it moves 1 in from the left, if 0 then 0's will be placed from left). Example:
al = 10100110
bl = 00100110
This one you may have problems to get to grips with
rol destination, count ; rotate left
Rotation looks like shifting, with the difference that the bits that are shifted out are shifted in again on the other side:
Example: ror (rotate right)
Quite Straightforward this, I wont go into major details, it just swaps the values of two registers about (values, addresses). Like example..
eax = 237h
Anyways end of day 1, if you learn this into your head the following days will get easier than harder. This is the basics ive taught you. Learn em well.
Ok whats a Float all about, well its simple, a float uses REAL values, what is a REAL value?
A REAL value is a number which is not an integer, i.e. it contains numbers after a decimal point, like for example a float opcode can work out 5 divided by 4 and give the answer 1.25, also a REAL value can contain NEGATIVE numbers also like -3.567
An integer with the same math problem will report 1 as the quotient with a remainder of 1. So you can see Floats are very usefull indeed :)
Why are we talking about floats? Some games and indeed applications will use float values to either work out monetary values or even in a game like percentage values and so forth.
Both my latest trainers for Act of War and Settlers 5 (Die Siedler 5) use float values.
Here is a list of opcodes and what they do :)
FLD [source] Pushes a Float Number from the source onto the top of the FPU Stack.
FST [destination] Copies a Float Number from the top of the FPU Stack into the destination.
FSTP [destination] Pops a Float Number from the top of the FPU Stack into the destination.
FLDZ Pushes +0.0 on top of FPU Stack
FLD1 Pushes +1.0 on top of FPU Stack
FLDPI Pushes PI on the top of FPU Stack
FILD [source] Pushes an integer from the source to the top of the FPU Stack.
FIST [destination] Copies an integer from the top of the FPU Stack to the destination.
FISTP [destination] Pops an integer from the top of FPU Stack into the destination.
FCHS Compliments the sign-bit of a float value located on the top of the FPU Stack or ST(0) Register.
FNOP Performs no FPU Operation.[It's a 2 byte instruction unlike that of NOP which is a 1 byte instruction.]
FABS Replaces the float value on the top of the stack with it's absolute value.
FADD [operand] Adds the value of the operand with the value located on the top of the FPU Stack and store the result on the top of the FPU Stack.
FCOS/FSIN Replaces the value on the top of the FPU Stack with it's cosine/sine value.
FDIV [operand] Divide the value on the top of the FPU Stack with the operand and store the result on the top of FPU Stack.
FMUL [operand] Multiply the value on the top of the FPU Stack with the operand and store the result on top of FPU Stack.
FSUB [operand] Subtract operand value from the value on top of FPU Stack and store the result on top of FPU Stack.
FXCHST (index) Exchanges values between top of FPU Stack and the ST(index) register.
FCOM Compares the float value located on top if FPU Stack with the operand located in memory or the FPU Stack.
FCOMP Same as FCOM but pops the float value from the top of the FPU Stack.
FNSTSW AX Store FPU Status Word in AX. (Used for Conditions)
Hope thats explanatory enough :)
Before I show an example or two, lets talk about Stacks. What are they?
Well a stack is used for a temporary location
for values, a game or application may want to
use a register for something else but want to
keep the previous value for
The stack is 8 small stacks in the 1, so look at it as a small filing cabinet in a way. Any of these values can be retrieved by calling for the stack and its position, like the following
st(0) - always the top of the stack
So when you want to get a value you can if you
know where it is stored, it does become a little
complicated if you keep PUSH'ing values to the
top of the stack as
PUSH - Places a value on a stack
But those opcodes are handy for integer values, what about floats?
The next section will show you.
OK how to PUSH and POP values from the stack, its not difficult, heres a few examples :)
Say we have a value in a known address which
is a REAL value (so float) and want to add a value
to it? For arguments sake lets say the register
EAX contains the
Here is how
FLD [eax] - This opcode PUSH's the value at the address 450000h contained in EAX and pushes it to the top of the stack
FADD [ebx] - This then adds the value at the address 450008h contained in EBX with the value at the top of the stack, then replaces the value at the top of the stack with the new value from the FADD opcode.
FSTP [eax] - This then POP's the value on top of the stack to the address 450000h contained in the register EAX, where your old money value was and replaces with new one.
Say now we want to calculate a Health Points
value after taking damage, but wait! The damage
is a float value but health is integer :o So how
does this work out??
Here it is
FILD (EAX) - This opcode PUSH's an integer value to the top of the stack from the address 450000h contained in EAX.
FSUB (EBX) - This subtracts the value at address 450008h (float) contained in EBX from the value at the top of the stack.
FISTP (EAX) - This opcode POP's an integer
value from the the top of the stack to the address
450000h contained in EAX. If the REAL value was
Great huh :) See its not that difficult to understand :)
This one is a toughy, we have a game but one
of the addresses in the EAX register is needed
for later on, but we also need the EAX register
to work out a new ammo value,
Dont worry, believe in the stacks :) The following will contain POP and PUSH command :)
So for this example, EAX contains the value 800000h, the ammo value is contained at the address 450000h and the EBX contains the address 450008h which contains the either positive or negative number to be added to the ammo amount, if negative a shot was fired, if positive then a reload of the weapon or ammo picked up.
MOV EAX, 450000h - This opcode moves the value 450000h into the register EAX, which replaces the old 800000h value.
FILD [EAX] - This opcode as you know will
PUSH the value at the address contained in the
register EAX, see the difference its using the
[ ] so the
FADD [EBX] - This again is self explanatory
now, it adds the value at address 450008h with
the value on the stack, if it was a negative number
FISTP [EAX] - Again this POP's an integer value from top of stack to the memory location contained in EAX, which is 450000h.
CALL 46AEFF - What the hell is this??? I hear you say, wait a bit ill tell you just after :)
POP EAX - This opcode POP's the original
800000h back into the register EAX, so
OK, the CALL opcode, its a handy opcode for the fact that if your program or game uses a routine to work out something but is always used it would be messy code if we were to keep manually typing it out not to mention a much bigger file.
The CALL opcode, calls the opcodes at a certain address to work out the same function it does later on, so you only need to have that 1 set of opcodes for the entire program or game, you just CALL it, saves time and space.
At the end of these opcodes from a CALL will be an opcode call RET (return) it will make the program or game go back to where it left off, in this case to the POP EAX opcode.
Hope you understood and it helped you see how things work.
Any questions just post and ill answer when available :)
Next time I will talk about different Jumps and Compares :)
After that Ill show you how to code inject to make a trainer :D But as I said learn these well and you will understand what im talking about when code injecting ;)
CONDITIONALS AND JUMPS
Ok this will be the last one for a while to show you, as they get more and more advanced.
Learning the 3 days very well, should well be enough to do easy and simple trainers and how to find the values.
First I want to talk about Flags, what the hell are flags???
Well its not that difficult to understand.
The flag register has a set of flags which are set/unset depending on calculations or other events. Here is the more important ones.
ZF (Zero flag)
SF (Sign flag)
CF (Carry flag)
OF (Overflow flag)
There is other flags some which you will never use so I wont talk about them.
Heres a list of the Opcodes for Jumps
Look at this example
This little example basically tests two values to see if they are equal, if so the program will move the value 1 into the Zero Flag (ZF), thus allowing the conditional jump (JE) to goto a memory location to execute opcodes there.
Now if it wasnt equal, the program will move 0 into ZF, and will skip the JE instruction, then move the value in the EBX register to the EAX register, forcing to be equal then doing an unconditional jump (JMP) to the same memory location.
Games can use this, some games have a real address for values and a (what I like to call) ghost address, the ghost address is where the value to be shown on the game is used, but if a check like above exists, no matter what you force into that address will revert back to the real one.
Im sure anyone trying to scan memory addresses for a game may have came up against this at one point.
Other opcode that can be used is
CMP register, register/value - Compare two values and move 0 or 1 into appropriate Flags.
Ok thats enough for now, ive taught you basic ASM opcodes, floats and Conditional Jumps.
This should be all you need to train a game :)