Shoguns new patch works on cycle based cheat checking, whenever you end a turn a code is worked into it while your opponents and such are moving to make sure you a value isn't suddenly changed and when it is detected the game instantly crashes this is on purpose to obviously stop cheating.
I found ways to get around this and as PWizard says in his first post, to TURN OFF OPTIONS you dont need. When you press the cheat turn it off as soon as the value has changed, DO NOT END YOUR TURN WITH ANY TRAINER OPTIONS ON THIS WILL CAUSE THE GAME TO CRASH. If you wish to continue cheating you must continually turn on the cheat to change your value back to its maximum, (Because seriously who needs max gold after all your towns are already making +150,000 gold pturn once you get to a certain point.) Then turn off all options end your turn, and this shouldn't cause the game to crash. Always save every 3-5 turns You will eventually forget what options are turned on so I always press all the numpad buttons twice to ensure I hear the "OFF" audio message.
after activating the trainer, and filling out the options i want to play. Once i try to hit ESC to skip the cinematics the game crashes to desktop. no options enabled, not even 1 turn played cause i never made it to the map. game works fine without the trainer.
EDIT - Fixed, after F1 at the main menu immediately disable it with / to get the game to load without crash.